树莓派安装nextcloud搭建私有云

作者 | 2019年10月26日

前序文章:

这是折腾树莓派的最后一篇文章,也是买树莓派的最大目的:搭建自己的私有云,随时同步和访问各种设备上的数据。

nextcloud简介

nextcloud前身是大名鼎鼎的owncloud,两者均是开源的网络硬盘系统。nextcloud不仅可以搭建私有云存储和同步数据,也提供联系人、日程管理功能,web端还提供私密的语音视频通话功能。nextcloud致力于数据安全,云端的数据均可选择加密,并遵循安全行业最佳实践。客户端支持windows、macos、linux三大pc平台,以及安卓ios两大移动平台,完全足够家庭或中小型团队协作使用。

部署和设置nextcloud

nextcloud程序由php语言编写,因此部署需要具备php运行环境以及web中间件。因其支持平台众多,官方文档略显繁琐,故本文给出树莓派上用nginx、mariadb、redis搭建nextcloud的详细步骤。

  1. 从官网下载部署程序
  2. 更新系统和必备软件:sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade && sudo apt install -y libreoffice ffmpeg
  3. 安装nginx:sudo apt install -y nginx
  4. 安装redis:sudo apt install -y redis;
  5. 安装mariadb:sudo apt install mariadb-server
  6. 安装php及推荐模块:sudo apt install -y php7.3 php7.3-fpm php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-dom php7.3-iconv php7.3-openssl php-redis php-mysql php7.3-zip php7.3-bz2 php7.3-intl php7.3-imagick
  7. 解压部署程序:unzip nextcloud-xxxx.zip
  8. 将nextcloud文件移动到网站根目录:sudo mv nextcloud-xxx /var/www/html/nextcloud
  9. 创建数据目录,更改目录权限:mkdir /var/www/html/nextcloud/data && sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/nextcloud
  10. 配置php:打开/etc/php/7.3/fpm/php.ini文件,做如下更改:
    1. expose_php改成off
    2. date.timezone 一行删掉前面的;号,值改成Asia/Shanghai
    3. 删掉opcache.enable=1,opcache.validate_timestamps=1,opcache.revalidate_freq=2这三行前面的;号,将opcache.revalidate_freq的值改成30;
  11. 配置fpm:打开/etc/php/7.3/fpm/pool.d/www.conf文件,移除clear_env=no,env[开头那几行前面的;号(即388,401-405这几行前面的分号);
  12. 设置mariadb管理员密码: mysqladmin -uroot password '你的密码';
  13. 创建nextcloud数据库:mysql -uroot -p'你的密码' -e 'create user nextcloud@"%" identified by "nextcloud数据库密码"; create database nextcloud default charset=utf8mb4; grant all privileges on nextcloud.* to nextcloud@"%"; flush privileges;'
  14. 配置nginx:在/etc/nginx/sites-enabled目录下,创建一个nextcloud文件,其内容如下(注意,本配置中禁用了https):

    upstream php-handler {
    server unix:/run/php/php7.3-fpm.sock;
    }
    
    server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    server_name cloud.example.com;
    # enforce https
    #return 301 https://$server_name:443$request_uri;
    #}
    
    #server {
    #    listen 443 ssl http2;
    #    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    #    server_name cloud.example.com;
    
    # Use Mozilla's guidelines for SSL/TLS settings
    # https://mozilla.github.io/server-side-tls/ssl-config-generator/
    # NOTE: some settings below might be redundant
    #    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.crt;
    #    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.key;
    
    # Path to the root of your installation
    root /var/www/html/nextcloud;
    
    location = /robots.txt {
        allow all;
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }
    
    # The following 2 rules are only needed for the user_webfinger app.
    # Uncomment it if you're planning to use this app.
    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last;
    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last;
    
    # The following rule is only needed for the Social app.
    # Uncomment it if you're planning to use this app.
    #rewrite ^/.well-known/webfinger /public.php?service=webfinger last;
    
    location = /.well-known/carddav {
      return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav;
    }
    location = /.well-known/caldav {
      return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav;
    }
    
    # set max upload size
    client_max_body_size 512M;
    fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;
    
    # Enable gzip but do not remove ETag headers
    gzip on;
    gzip_vary on;
    gzip_comp_level 4;
    gzip_min_length 256;
    gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth;
    gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy;
    
    # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
    # This module is currently not supported.
    #pagespeed off;
    
    location / {
        rewrite ^ /index.php;
    }
    
    location ~ ^\/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)\/ {
        deny all;
    }
    location ~ ^\/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
        deny all;
    }
    
    location ~ ^\/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core\/ajax\/update|status|ocs\/v[12]|updater\/.+|oc[ms]-provider\/.+)\.php(?:$|\/) {
        fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(\/.*|)$;
        set $path_info $fastcgi_path_info;
        try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404;
        include fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info;
        #fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
        # Avoid sending the security headers twice
        fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
        # Enable pretty urls
        fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
        fastcgi_pass php-handler;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_request_buffering off;
    }
    
    location ~ ^\/(?:updater|oc[ms]-provider)(?:$|\/) {
        try_files $uri/ =404;
        index index.php;
    }
    
    # Adding the cache control header for js, css and map files
    # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
    location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff2?|svg|gif|map)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
        add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=15778463";
        # Add headers to serve security related headers (It is intended to
        # have those duplicated to the ones above)
        # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read into
        # this topic first.
        #add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;" always;
        #
        # WARNING: Only add the preload option once you read about
        # the consequences in https://hstspreload.org/. This option
        # will add the domain to a hardcoded list that is shipped
        # in all major browsers and getting removed from this list
        # could take several months.
        add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always;
        add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always;
        add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always;
        add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always;
        add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always;
        add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always;
        add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always;
    
        # Optional: Don't log access to assets
        access_log off;
    }
    
    location ~ \.(?:png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg|bcmap)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
        # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
        access_log off;
    }
    }
    
  15. 启动各项服务:sudo systemctl restart nginx php7.3-fpm redis-server mariadb。如果系统安装了防火墙,记得放行80端口;

  16. 打开浏览器,在地址栏输入树莓派的ip,例如:http://192.168.1.2,将出现nextcloud的设置页面,选择用户名和密码,以及输入数据库用户名和密码,完成设置。

  17. 设置完成后,进入了类似百度云盘的操作界面,说明云盘已经初步搭建好了。
  18. 配置nextcloud,使其性能更好:打开/var/www/html/nextcloud/config/config.php文件,在最后的);前添加缓存配置: 'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
    'memcache.distributed' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
    'redis' => [
    'host' => 'localhost',
    'port' => 6379,
    'dbindex' => 0,
    'password' => '',
    'timeout' => 1.5,
    ],

至此,nextcloud的部署和设置全部完毕,在浏览器界面已经能够查看和管理各种数据和功能了。

其它

  1. 树莓派默认的sd卡存储空间很小,实践应该将nextcloud的程序文件托管在外置硬盘上;
  2. 设置外网访问需要用到域名、dns、https配置以及内网穿透,本文不再给出;
  3. 各平台客户端的设置和使用请参考官方教程,本文不再给出

参考

  1. https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/17/admin_manual/installation/index.html
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